Grammar Tips & Articles »

Subjects Joined by “and”

This article is about Subjects Joined by “and” — enjoy your reading!

1:05 min read
  Ed Good  —  Grammar Tips
Font size:

A compound subject consists of two or more words acting as the subject of the sentence. When the series is joined conjunctively, that is, with the word and, in the vast majority of cases the subject is plural and requires a plural verb. Look at the following mistakes:

But recent research and commentary has [have] suggested that the emphasis upon eyewitness identification may lead to questionable results. Charles P. Curtis, Jr., Lions Under the Throne, p. 49 (1947) (quoted in Garner Legal, p. 841).

Note that research and commentary are two different things; the verb must be the plural have.

At the same time, the democratic process and the personal participation of the citizen in his government is [are] not all we want. Garner Legal, p. 841.

Note that democratic process and personal participation are two different things; hence the plural are.

Sometimes two nouns joined with and refer to a single idea and should carry a singular verb. Study this example:

The confusion and uncertainty is compounded by doubt regarding the question whether the complete liquidation and reorganization provisions can have concurrent application. Garner Legal, p. 841.

The words confusion and uncertainty actually describe a single mental state; the verb, therefore, is singular.


Previous: Common Traps to Avoid

Next: Subjects Joined by "or"

Rate this article:

Have a discussion about this article with the community:



    Use the citation below to add this article to your bibliography:


    "Subjects Joined by “and”." STANDS4 LLC, 2024. Web. 22 Jun 2024. <>.

    Free, no signup required:

    Add to Chrome

    Check your text and writing for style, spelling and grammar problems everywhere on the web!

    Free, no signup required:

    Add to Firefox

    Check your text and writing for style, spelling and grammar problems everywhere on the web!


    Free Writing Tool:

    Grammar Checker

    Improve your grammar, vocabulary, and writing -- and it's FREE!


    Are you a grammar master?

    Choose the sentence with correct use of the present continuous tense:
    A They are goes to the store.
    B I am read a book.
    C She is cooking dinner right now.
    D We are play a game together.

    Improve your writing now:

    Download Grammar eBooks

    It’s now more important than ever to develop a powerful writing style. After all, most communication takes place in reports, emails, and instant messages.